Using an advanced imaging technique, researchers at Albert Einstein College of Medicine and Montefiore Health System were able to predict which patients who’d recently suffered concussions were likely to fully recover. The study also sheds light on the brain’s mechanisms for repairing or compensating for concussion injuries – information that could speed the development of therapies. The study was published online in the American Journal of Neuroradiology.
“Our study presents for the first time a precision approach to harness imaging at the time of concussion to forecast outcome a year later,” said study leader Michael L. Lipton, M.D., Ph.D., professor of radiology, of psychiatry and behavioral sciences, and of neuroscience, as well as associate director of the Gruss Magnetic Resonance Research Center (MRRC) at Einstein and director of MRI services at Montefiore. “While we still lack effective treatments, we now have a better understanding of the neurological mechanisms that underlie a favorable response to concussion, which opens a new window on how to look at therapies and to measure their effectiveness.”
Each year, 2.5 million people in the United States sustain traumatic brain injuries (TBI), according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Concussions account for at least 75 percent of these injuries. Diagnosing concussion is based on assessing symptoms; there is no objective biomarker or test. Symptoms can vary widely-lasting for just seconds or sometimes not appearing for days or weeks after injury. Common symptoms including seizures, trouble sleeping, decreased coordination, repeated vomiting or nausea, confusion, and slurred speech.
“While most people think of concussions as a mild and short-lived injury, 15 to 30 percent of patients are left with symptoms that persist indefinitely,” said Sara Strauss, M.D., the study’s lead author and resident in the department of radiology at Montefiore. “Until now, we haven’t had a reliable way to differentiate in advance those who may be burdened long-term and those who would have a complete recovery.”
Conventional imaging techniques, such as CT scans and MRI, cannot detect the subtle damage to axons (the nerve fibers that constitute the brain’s white matter) that is associated with concussions. But in a previous study, Dr. Lipton and his colleagues demonstrated that an advanced form of MRI called diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can detect concussion-related damage to axons. It does so by “seeing” the movement of water molecules along axons, which allows researchers to measure the uniformity of water movement (called fractional anisotropy, or FA) throughout the brain. Finding a low FA brain region, for example, indicates structural damage that has impeded water movement in that area.