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Exploring the gut-brain connection for insights into multiple sclerosis

New research by investigators at Brigham and Women’s Hospital (BWH) suggests that bacteria living in the gut may remotely influence the activity of cells in the brain that are involved in controlling inflammation and neurodegeneration. Using pre-clinical models for multiple sclerosis (MS) and samples from MS patients, the team found evidence that changes in diet and gut flora may influence astrocytes in the brain, and, consequently, neurodegeneration, pointing to potential therapeutic targets. The team’s results are published this week in Nature Medicine.

Immunofluorescence Imaging of Human Brain Tissue
Immunofluorescence imaging of human brain tissue generated from an active lesion from an individual with multiple sclerosis shows astrocytes (blue), the Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (red) and the phosphorylated Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (green).
Credit: Image courtesy of Jorge Ivan Alvarez, Assistant Professor at the Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.